This paper compares upstream, downstream and hybrid approaches to designing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade system for the European Union. These trading models are assessed with reference to five policy criteria: economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness, distributional implications, administrative feasibility and cultural acceptability. This paper focuses on the first three criteria while noting considerations relevant to the... continue reading »
This paper provides a “strawman” proposal, originally intended to generate dialogue with Member States present at a 1999 workshop. The proposal provides a detailed profile of how a more limited EU-wide emissions trading system covering selected industrial sectors combined with the current system of policies and measures could go into effect in advance of 2008.